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Referencing & Bibliography

Citation systems

Footnotes and endnotes

The footnote or endnote system of referencing is standard in the humanities. You need to give a full bibliographical description the first time you quote from a work, which is included in a footnote or endnote.

A text description of the following examples is available on a separate page.

For example:

Socolow, Susan Migden The Women of Colonial Latin America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Author
Title
Place of publication
Publisher
Year
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Socolow, Susan Migden
The Women of Colonial Latin America
(Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press,
2000)

When you quote subsequently from the same work you can use the abbreviations op.cit or Ibid., or abbreviate the reference, as follows:

Socolow, op.cit, p.101

Author
'Already cited'
Page number
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Socolow,
op.cit,
p.101

Ibid., p.101

'As above'
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Ibid.,
p. 101.

Socolow, The Women of Colonial Latin America, p. 101.

Author
Title
Page number
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Socolow, 
The Women of Colonial Latin America, 
p. 101.

The full bibliographical description is also reported in the bibliography at the end of your research, following the conventions explained in the next section, 'compiling a bibliography'.

In-text references

The in-text system of referencing is known as 'Harvard style' or the author-date system and is common in the social sciences. In the body of your text, after quoting or paraphrasing a work, you give the author, the year of publication and, separated by a colon, the page number(s), all enclosed in brackets.

For example:

(Socolow 2000: 101)

Author
Year
Page number
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(Socolow
2000:
101)

When the author has two publications in the same year you distinguish between them with the letters a and b:

(Socolow 2000a: 101)
(Socolow 2000b: 30)

Author
1st publication of this author/year to be cited
Page number
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(Socolow
2000a:
101)

Author
2nd publication of this author/year to be cited
Page number
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(Socolow
2000b:
30)

Again, the full bibliographical description of the work will be reported in the bibliography at the end of your research, following the conventions outlined in 'compiling a bibliography'.

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