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Referencing & Bibliography

Systems & consistency

The Harvard system

In this section you will find a few examples of how to compile your bibliography following the Harvard, or author-date system, which is combined with in-text references. Each rule is accompanied by an example to make its application clear. For further explanation of this and other systems please consult the other reference systems section of the PORT tutorial.

Books (monographs and collections of essays)

Author's surname, her/his first name (date of publication) title of the book. Edition if not the first. Place of publication, publisher:

Farriss, N.M. (1992) Maya Society Under Colonial Rule. The Collective Enterprise of Survival. Princeton, Princeton University Press.


Author's surname, her/his first name (year of publication) title of the article. Title of the journal, volume and part number, month or season of the year, page numbers of article:

Lewis, L. A. (1996) The 'Weakness' of Women and the Feminization of the Indian in Colonial Mexico. Colonial Latin American Review, 5, June, pp. 73-94.

Articles in electronic journals

Author's surname, her/his first name (year) title of article. Title of journal [type of medium] date of publication, volume number (issue number), pagination or online equivalent <availability statement> [date of accession if necessary]:

Fowler, W. (2004) Joseph Welsh: a British Santanista (Mexico, 1832). Journal of Latin American Studies [internet] 2nd March, 36(1), pp. 29-56 Available from: <> [Accessed 30th July 2004]


Title (year) Directed by. Place, distributor [type]

Amores perros (2001) Directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu. Mexico, Optimum Releasing [dvd]


Author’s surname, her/his first name (year) title of the thesis. Ph.D. thesis, name of university:

Kanter, D. E. (1993) Hijos del pueblo: Family, Community, and Gender in Rural Mexico, the Toluca Region, 1730-1830. Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia.

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