Library Research Skills Tutorial About the tutorial
Referencing & Bibliography

Systems & consistency

The MHRA system

In this section you will find the general rules to compile your bibliography following the MHRA system, which is always combined with references in footnotes or endnotes. Each rule is accompanied by an example to make its application clear. For more information about the MHRA system and an explanation of its origins consult the MHRA section of the PORT tutorial.

Books (monographs and collections of essays)

1. Books by one author

Author's surname, her/his first name, title of book (place of publication: publisher, year of publication):

Dunkerley, James, Americana. The Americas in the World, around 1850 (London and New York: Verso, 2000)

2. Two books by the same author

After the first line, replace the author's name with one hyphen, listing her/his books alphabetically:

Lockhart, James, The Nahuas after the Conquest (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992)
- Of Things of the Indies (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999)

3. Books by more than one author

First author's surname, her/his first name, second author's first name, her/his surname, and last author's first name, last author's surname, title of book (place of publication: publisher, year of publication):

Sousa, Lisa, Stafford Poole, and James Lockhart, The Story of Guadalupe (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998)

If you have more than three authors, only mention the first author followed by the formula 'and others'.

4. Books with one editor

Editor's surname, her/his first name, ed., title of book (place of publication: publisher, year of publication):

Schroeder, Susan, ed., Native Resistance and the Pax Colonial in New Spain (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1998)

5. Books with more than one editor

First editor's surname, her/his first name, second editor's first name, second editor's surname, and last editor's first name, last editor's surname, eds., title of book (place of publication: publisher, year of publication):

Schroeder, Susan, Stephanie Wood, and Robert Haskett, eds., Indian Women of Early Mexico (Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997)

If there are more than three editors, you may list only the first one followed by the phrase 'and others'.

6. Chapters or articles in a book

Author's surname, her/his first name, 'title of essay', in title of collection, ed. by editor's first name, her/his surname (place of publication: publisher, year), pp. pages:

Sharp, Jim, 'History from Below', in New Perspectives on Historical Writing, ed. by Peter Burke (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001), pp. 25-42


1. Articles in a scholarly journal (with continuous pagination throughout a volume/year)

Author's surname, her/his first name, 'title of article', title of journal, volume (year), pages:

Kanter, Deborah E., 'Native Female Land Tenure and its Decline in Mexico, 1750-1900', Ethnohistory, 42 (1995), 607-616

2. Articles in newspapers or magazines

Author's surname, her/his first name, 'title of article', title of source, day month year, pp. pages:

Ash, Timothy Garton, 'The Janus Dilemma', The Guardian Review, 5 June 2004, pp. 4-6


Name of repository, name of manuscript collection (when available), number of document, author or title of the document (when available):

British Library, Manuscripts, 3505.aa.82, Ignacio de Paredes, Catecismo mexicano

Further information on citing archives and manuscripts can be found in the 'using archives and manuscripts' section of this tutorial.

Electronic resources

1. Website

Author's surname, her/his first name, name of page <electronic address> [accessed date of access]:

Isaacs, Jorge, María <> [accessed 10 June 2004]

2. Online article

Author's surname, her/his first name, 'article title', name of online journal, volume.issue (year) <electronic address> [accessed date of access]:

Donath, James, 'Il Purgatorio: Argentina fights for its tortured soul', Yale Political Quarterly, 17.1 (1995) <> [accessed 31 January 2003]


Title of CD-ROM (place of publication: publisher, year of publication) [on CD-ROM]:

Latin American Economy & Business (London: Latin American Newsletters, 1997) [on CD-ROM]

Audio and video

1. Film

Title. Dir. Director’s name. Distributor. Year of release:

Like Water for Chocolate [Como agua para chocolate]. Dir. Alfonso Arau. Miramax. 1994

2. Sound recording

Composer or author. Title of recording. Artist. Orchestra. Conductor. CD reference number:

Vincenzo Bellini. Norma. Orchestra of La Scala. Cond. Tullio Serafin. 685

Unpublished theses and dissertations

Author's surname, her/his first name, 'title of thesis/dissertation' (unpublished doctoral thesis, name of university, year):

Komisaruk, Catherine H., 'Women and Men in Guatemala, 1765-1835: Gender, Ethnicity, and Social Relations in the Central American Capital' (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, UCLA, 2000)


Interviewee’s surname, her/his first name. Interview with, place, date:

Molina, Juventino. Interview with Juventino Molina, Pátzcuaro, 4-5 Nov. 1997.

Email correspondence

Correspondent’s surname, her/his first name. Eventual title, private email to, date:

Brown, Peter. ‘Latin American politics’, private email to John Smith, 26 April 2000


Information about citing government publications is covered in the 'using government publications' section of this tutorial.

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