Library Research Skills Tutorial About the tutorial
Referencing & Bibliography

Systems & consistency

There are different systems to record entries in your bibliography and as a consequence, to cite references. The most common in the UK for the humanities is the MHRA system (Modern Humanities Research Association). It is important to note that the MHRA system is not usually used for social science, instead there are various alternative systems that are explained in the other reference systems section of the PORT tutorial. The most widely used is the Harvard system, also called the author-date system, or at times the University of Chicago system.

Before adopting any system make sure that your university follows this set of rules and does not require another system. Whatever system you choose or are asked to use, the most important thing is to be consistent.

Follow the links below for web pages that provide full details and illustrative examples of these two systems of bibliography:

Alternatively, follow the links below for easily printable or downloadable pdf pages that provide full details and illustrative examples of these two systems of bibliography:

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